Article: Polarized AAVR expression determines infectivity by AAV gene therapy vectors
Authors: Bradley A. Hamilton, Xiaopeng Li, Alejandro A. Pezzulo, Mahmoud H. Abou Alaiwa & Joseph Zabner
Journal: Gene Therapy volume 26, pages240–249 (2019)
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been investigated to transfer the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to airways. Inhaled AAV2-CFTR in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is safe, but inefficient. In vitro, AAV2 transduction of human airway epithelia on the apical (luminal) side is inefficient, but efficient basolaterally. We previously selected AAV2.5T, a novel capsid that apically transduces CF human airway epithelia and efficiently restores CFTR function. We hypothesize the AAV receptor (AAVR) is basolaterally localized, and that AAV2.5T utilizes an alternative apical receptor. We found AAVR in human airway epithelia by western blot and RNA-Seq analyses. Using immunocytochemistry we did not find endogenous AAVR at membranes but overexpression localized AAVR to the basolateral membrane, where it preferentially increased transduction. Anti-AAVR antibodies blocked transduction by AAV2 from the basolateral side but not AAV2.5T from the apical side, suggesting a unique apical receptor. Finally, we found infection by AAV2 but not AAV2.5T was blocked by CRISPR knockout of AAVR in cell lines. Our data suggest the absence of apical AAVR is rate limiting for AAV2, and efficient transduction by AAV2.5T is accomplished using an AAVR independent pathway. Our findings inform the development of gene therapy for CF, and AAV vectors in general.
Link to journal online: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41434-019-0078-3