Dietary Fatty Acid Saturation Modulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Mediated Vascular Function

Article: Dietary Fatty Acid Saturation Modulates Sphingosine-1-Phosphate-Mediated Vascular Function

Authors: Daniel W. Nuno and Kathryn G. Lamping

Journal: J Diabetes Res. 2019 Aug 25;2019:2354274

Abstract:
Sphingolipids, modified by dietary fatty acids, are integral components of plasma membrane and caveolae that are also vasoactive compounds. We hypothesized that dietary fatty acid saturation affects vasoconstriction to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) through caveolar regulation of rho kinase. Wild type (WT) and caveolin-1-deficient (cav-1 KO) mice which lack vascular caveolae were fed a low-fat diet (LF), 60% high-saturated fat diet (lard, HF), or 60% fat diet with equal amounts of lard and n-3 polyunsaturated menhaden oil (MO). Weight gain of WT on HF and MO diets was similar while markedly blunted in cav-1 KO. Neither high-fat diet affected the expression of cav-1, rho, or rho kinase in arteries from WT. In cav-1 KO, MO increased the vascular expression of rho but had no effect on rho kinase. HF had no effect on rho or rho kinase expression in cav-1 KO. S1P produced a concentration-dependent constriction of gracilis arteries from WT on LF that was reduced with HF and restored to normal with MO. Constriction to S1P was reduced in cav-1 KO and no longer affected by a high-saturated fat diet. Inhibition of rho kinase which reduced constriction to PE independent of diet in arteries from WT and cav-1 KO only reduced constriction to S1P in arteries from WT fed MO. The data suggest that dietary fatty acids modify vascular responses to S1P by a caveolar-dependent mechanism which is enhanced by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fats.

Link to journal online: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2019/2354274/

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