Article: Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Is a Key Lipase for the Mobilization of Lipid Droplets in Human Beta Cells and Critical for the Maintenance of Syntaxin1a Level in Beta Cells
Authors: Siming Liu, Joseph A Promes, Mikako Harata, Akansha Mishra, Samuel B Stephens, Eric B Taylor, Anthony J Burand, William I Sivitz, Brian D Fink, James A Ankrum, Yumi Imai
Journal: Diabetes. 2020 Mar 31;db190951.doi: 10.2337/db09-0951. Online ahead of print.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are frequently increased when excessive lipid accumulation leads to cellular dysfunction. Distinct from mouse beta cells, LDs are prominent in human beta cells, however, the regulation of LD mobilization (lipolysis) in human beta cells remains unclear. We found that glucose increases lipolysis in non-diabetic human islets, but not in type 2 diabetic (T2D) islets, indicating dysregulation of lipolysis in T2D islets. Silencing adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in human pseudoislets (shATGL) increased triglycerides, and the number and size of LDs indicating that ATGL is the principal lipase in human beta cells. In shATGL pseudoislets, biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin secretion to IBMX and KCl were all reduced without altering oxygen consumption rate compared with scramble control. Like human islets, INS1 cells showed visible LDs, glucose responsive lipolysis, and impairment of GSIS after ATGL silencing. ATGL deficient INS1 cells and human pseudoislets showed reduced Stx1a, a key SNARE component. Proteasomal degradation of Stx1a was accelerated likely through reduced palmitoylation in ATGL deficient INS1 cells. Therefore, ATGL is responsible for LD mobilization in human beta cells and supports insulin secretion by stabilizing Stx1a. The dysregulated lipolysis may contribute to LD accumulation and beta cell dysfunction in T2D islets.
Link to journal online: https://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/03/27/db09-0951.long