Article: Pulmonary Aspects of COVID-19
Authors: Kevin C Doerschug, Gregory A Schmidt
Journal: Annu Rev Med. 2022 Jan 27;73:81-93
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory virus that gains entry via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) within airway epithelium. Patients exhibit a spectrum of respiratory symptoms from asymptomatic to respiratory failure. Patient factors including obesity, tobacco use, and black race are all associated with increased ACE2 expression and may contribute to increased complications. Consolidation and ground-glass opacities on chest imaging are typical but not specific for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Venous thromboembolism occurs infrequently when prophylactic anticoagulation is provided. However, capillary microthrombosis is nearly ubiquitous, suggesting that it contributes to hypoxemia. Remdesivir and glucocorticoids may benefit some hospitalized patients. Many of those afflicted remain symptomatic two weeks following diagnosis and continue to require health care. Total lung capacity, diffusion capacity, and maximal oxygen consumption may be reduced for months in some survivors. Lung transplant offers chronically critically ill patients new hope, and this option may have increasing potential for outpatients with COVID-19-associated fibrosis.
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