Article: The Rapid Reduction of Infection-Related Visits and Antibiotic Use Among People With Cystic Fibrosis After Starting Elexacaftor-Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor
Authors: Aaron C Miller, Logan M Harris, Joseph E Cavanaugh, Mahmoud Abou Alaiwa, David A Stoltz, Douglas B Hornick, Philip M Polgreen
Journal: Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 30;75(7):1115-1122
Background: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) routinely suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections. Such infections require frequent courses of antimicrobials and often involve multidrug-resistant organisms. The goal of this study was to identify real-world evidence for the effectiveness of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor (ELX/TEZ/IVA) in decreasing infection-related visits and antimicrobial use in people with CF.
Methods: Using IBM MarketScan data, we identified 389 enrollees with CF who began taking ELX/TEZ/IVA before 1 December 2019 and were enrolled from 1 July 2019 to 14 March 2020. We also identified a comparison population who did not begin ELX/TEZ/IVA during the study period. We compared the following outcomes in the 15 weeks before and after medication initiation: total healthcare visits, inpatient visits, infection-related visits, and antimicrobial prescriptions. We analyzed outcomes using both a case-crossover analysis and a difference-in-differences analysis, to control for underlying trends.
Results: For the case-crossover analysis, ELX/TEZ/IVA initiation was associated with the following changes over a 15-week period: change in overall healthcare visit dates, -2.5 (95% confidence interval, -3.31 to -1.7); change in inpatient admissions, -0.16 (-.22 to -.10); change in infection-related visit dates, -0.62 (-.93 to -.31); and change in antibiotic prescriptions, -0.78 (-1.03 to -.54). Results from the difference-in-differences approach were similar.
Conclusions: We show a rapid reduction in infection-related visits and antimicrobial use among people with CF after starting a therapy that was not explicitly designed to treat infections. Currently, there are >30 000 people living with CF in the United States alone. Given that this therapy is effective for approximately 90% of people with CF, the impact on respiratory infections and antimicrobial use may be substantial.
Link to journal online: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/75/7/1115/6526243